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Moravian University
Catalog

Environmental Studies and Sciences

Interim Director: Diane Husic

The environmental studies and sciences program at Moravian University acquaints students with the myriad environmental issues that face us today. It seeks to develop a framework in which students can work closely with faculty and one another to analyze problems, test assumptions, and debate issues as they affect our lives as citizens of our community, our nation, and the world. The perspective we seek to develop is strongly interdisciplinary, incorporating the natural sciences as well as economics, history, philosophy, and political science. In addition, it is designed to transcend national boundaries. All students in the program, regardless of their area of concentration, will share important common experiences, including a unique capstone course in which they will work in teams to investigate environmental issues.

Students who pursue environmental majors at Moravian have the option of earning either a B.S. in environmental science or a B.A. in environmental policy and economics. All students in both majors will have a shared body of knowledge through common coursework before the upper-level courses in their respective tracks, and through the capstone seminar course, which B.S. and B.A. students will take in combined sections. The balance of shared experience and field-specific knowledge is designed to foster cooperative work and learning among students and faculty. 

Coursework 

As prerequisites to the program, all students must take Economics 152 and a course in statistics (Mathematics 107 or Economics 156), preferably before the spring term of the sophomore year. Additional coursework in mathematics is recommended, especially for those students interested in pursuing graduate education.

The Common Environmental Studies and Sciences Core

Students in both tracks are required to take six course units in a common core of study. Five courses are designed to create a foundation that fosters understanding of this interdisciplinary field. The final writing-intensive course, which should be taken in the senior year, is intended specifically to teach and demonstrate research methods through integrative group research projects and presentations.

All students majoring in environmental studies and sciences must take the following courses in the common environmental studies core.


Environmental 112
I
Environmental Science
Environmental 111 Introductory Geology
Economics 240 Environmental Economics and Policy
Environmental 244 or Political Science 240 Climate Negotiations on the International Stage or Environmental Policy
Philosophy 250 Environmental Ethics
Environmental 370 Environmental Studies Seminar

The B.S. Track in Environmental Science

Students in the B.S. track in environmental science must take the following six courses in addition to those in the core.

Biology 212
or 
Biology 219
General Zoology
or
Introductory Botany
Biology 360 Ecology
Chemistry 113-114 General Chemistry I and II
Chemistry 205 Environmental Chemistry
Environmental 210 Introductory Geographic Information Systems

Students in the environmental science track must also complete at least two of the following.

Biology 220 Biostatistics
Biology 225 Invertebrate Biology
Biology 232 Field Marine Ecology
Biology 235 Microbiology
Biology 250 Animal Behavior
Biology 330 Marine Ecology
Biology 332 Advanced Field Marine Ecology
Biology 335 Evolution
Chemistry 211 Organic Chemistry I
Chemistry 212 Organic Chemistry II
Chemistry 222 Quantitative Analysis
Physics 109 or PHYS 111 Introductory Physics for the Life Sciences I or Introductory Physics I
Environmental 268 Costa Rica as a Model of Tropical Ecology and Sustainability
Environmental 330 Environmental Health
Environmental 286, 381-384 Independent Study
Environmental 288, 386-388 Internship
Environmental 400-401 Honors

Appropriate advanced courses offered as special topics or by other LVAIC institutions may be substituted as electives with the prior approval of the program director.

The B.A. Track in Environmental Policy and Economics

Students who intend to pursue the B.A. track in environmental policy and economics must take the following three courses in addition to those in the core.

Economics 241 Natural Resource Economics and Policy
Political Science 240 Environmental Policy
Political Science 340 Energy Policy

They must also take two of the following electives:

Economics 228 Economic Development
Economics 330 Public Economics
Economics 336 International Economics
Environmental 210 Introductory Geographic Information Systems
History 260 Environmental History
Political Science 110 The American Political System
Political Science 115 International Politics: How the World Works
Sociology 312 Environmental Law
Environmental 286, 381-384 Independent Study
Environmental 288, 386-388 Internship
Environmental 400-401 Honors

Appropriate advanced courses offered as special topics or by other LVAIC institutions may be substituted as electives with the prior approval of the program director.

The Minor in Environmental Science

The minor in Environmental Science consists of five (5) courses including ENVR 110 (Introduction to Environmental Studies) OR ENVR 112 (Environmental Science)[1],[2] plus four (4) additional science courses currently approved for the Environmental Science (B.S.) major. These courses are to be selected by the student in consultation with and approved by the Director of the Environmental Studies & Sciences Program. At least three of these courses must be taken at Moravian or through cross registration at other LVAIC institutions. These courses can be from one department or selected from a number of different departments. At least two courses should be numbered 210 or above (excluding 300-309). In seeking to establish a minor, a student may count a course only once. For example, a student majoring in Environmental Policy & Economics may not count Introductory Geology (ENVR 111) for both the major and a minor in Environmental Science. An alternate course must be substituted for the minor.

Courses that may be used to fulfill the Minor in Environmental Science:

Biology 220 Biostatistics
Biology 225 Invertebrate Biology
Biology 232 Field Marine Ecology
Biology 235 Microbiology
Biology 250 Animal Behavior
Biology 330 Marine Ecology
Biology 332 Advanced Field Marine Ecology
Biology 335 Evolution
Chemistry 211 Organic Chemistry I
Chemistry 212 Organic Chemistry II
Chemistry 222 Quantitative Analysis
Physics 109 or PHYS 111 Introductory Physics for the Life Sciences I or Introductory Physics I
Environmental 268 Costa Rica as a Model of Tropical Ecology and Sustainability
Environmental 330 Environmental Health
Environmental 286, 381-384 Independent Study
Environmental 288, 386-388 Internship
Environmental 400-401 Honors

Appropriate special topics courses and advanced courses offered by LVAIC institutions may be substituted with the prior approval of the Environmental Studies & Sciences Program Director.

The Minor in Environmental Policy & Economics

The minor in Environmental Policy & Economics consists of five (5) courses including ENVR 110 (Introduction to Environmental Studies) OR ENVR 112 (Environmental Science), Economics 240 or 241, plus three (3) additional science courses currently approved for the Environmental Policy & Economics (B.A.) major, of which at least one must be a course in economics. These courses are to be selected by the student in consultation with and approved by the Director of the Environmental Studies & Sciences Program. At least three of these courses must be taken at Moravian or through cross registration at other LVAIC institutions. These courses can be from one department or selected from a number of different departments. At least two courses should be numbered 210 or above (excluding 300-309). In seeking to establish a minor, a student may count a course only once. For example, a student majoring in Environmental Science may not count Environmental Economics (ECON 240) for both the major and a minor in Environmental Policy & Economics. An alternate course must be substituted for the minor.

Courses that may be used to fulfill the Minor in Environmental Policy & Economics:

Environmental 210 Introductory Geographic Information Systems
Economics 152 Principles of Economics
Economics 228 Economic Development
Economics 236 International Economics
Economics 240 Environmental Economics and Policy
Economics 241 Natural Resource Economics and Policy
Economics 330 Public Economics
Environmental 286 Independent Study
Environmental 288 Internship
Environmental 370 Environmental Studies Seminar
Environmental 381-384 Independent Study
Environmental 386-389 Internship
Political Science 110  The American Political System
Political Science 115 International Politics: How the World Works
Political Science 237 Public Administration and Public Policy
Political Science 240 Environmental Policy
Political Science 340 Energy Policy
Sociology 312 Environmental Law

Appropriate special topics courses and advanced courses offered by LVAIC institutions may be substituted with the prior approval of the Environmental Studies & Sciences Program Director.

Courses

ENVR 110. Introduction to Environmental Studies. Introduction to the principles of ecology and the relationship of humans to their environment. Emphasis on scientific, social, philosophical, and economic factors related to global environmental issues. Topics include agriculture and food production, water and air pollution, energy use and its environmental effects, toxic waste, and renewable/nonrenewable resources. Prerequisites: Not open to students who have completed ENVR 112. (M5)

ENVR 111. Introductory Geology. An introduction to the study of the Earth since its origin 4.5 billion years ago. Readings, lecture, interactive labs, and field trips examine rocks and minerals, forces within the earth such as plate tectonics, and mechanisms sculpting the earth’s surface. Geologic time and human influence on the planet are also discussed. Three 50-minute periods, one 3-hour laboratory. (F4)

ENVR 112. Environmental ScienceIntroduces non-major students to fundamental principles of ecology and the relationship of humans to their environment. Topics include agriculture and food production, water and air pollution, energy use and associated environmental effects, toxic waste, and renewable/nonrenewable resources. Prerequisites:  Not open to students who have completed ENVR 110. (F4) 

ENVR 210. Introductory Geographic Information Systems. Geographic information systems are a primary tool for analysis of spatial data. ArcGIS desktop software is used to edit, query, and analyze spatial databases and display the results of analysis. Both vector and raster data are considered. Emphasis on applications of GIS to the lecture/laboratory sessions. Sophomore standing required. Spring.

ENVR 242. Environmental Writing. This writing course will survey a broad spectrum of environmental literature, from Thoreau’s Walden to Cheryl Strayed’s recent bestseller Wild, as well as images, music, and cinema that address environmental themes. Through writing, class discussion, and other assignments, students will reflect on our changing relationship with the natural world and consider what the engagement has meant for both the planet and its human inhabitants. The course follows a workshop format, so reading and critiquing other students’ writing is required. (M6)

ENVR 244. Climate Negotiations on the International Stage. This interdisciplinary course introduces students to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), including the science, different mechanisms within the UNFCCC, the subsidiary bodies which assist the COP, and the various constituencies of the non-governmental organizations (NGOs). Students will be introduced to the multi-cultural perspectives (including those of indigenous peoples, and contrasts between the global north and south) and other issues such as gender that influence individual country positions. Students examine not only the process used for developing multilateral agreements, but also how these are ratified and implemented in different countries. This course will utilize multiple modes of teaching and learning including weekly lecture-discussion sessions; group work; individual and team projects; use of online resources and tools for research, blogging, and weekly virtual discussions; and students will also actively follow and engage in the UNFCCC negotiations during the annual fall conferences. Prerequisites: Sophomore or higher standing required.

ENVR 264. Dying to Go Green: The Green Burial Movement. This writing course will consider the emerging movement in “natural” – or “green” – burials, both in this country and abroad. Our primary text will be Grave Matters, which tells the stories of families who stepped outside the doors of their local funeral parlors and laid their loved ones to rest in natural cemeteries, backyard grave sites, memorial reefs, and at sea. You’ll also read about cremation, home funerals, and “eco-coffins,” as well the history of American burial and the benefits of going out green. By way of contrast, you will learn about the embalming process and the ecological consequences of our modern funeral practices. 

ENVR 268. Costa Rica as a Model of Sustainability and Tropical Ecology. In 1948, the small Central American country of Costa Rica abolished its military and has long avoided the conflict and civil war that has plagued its neighbors. This has enabled the country to invest in conservation, national parks, health care, education, renewable clean energy, ecological research, and other practices leading to it becoming a model for sustainable development. The country routinely scores highly in the global Happiness Rankings – an indicator of the well-being of citizens. In this course, students not only explore the biodiversity and tropical ecology of the beautiful and varied landscapes, but also research examples of sustainable practices including agriculture, indigenous traditions, conservation, reduction of a nation’s carbon footprint, and ecotourism. A trip to Costa Rica over spring break is a required component of the course that allows students to explore first-hand some examples of remarkable ecological theory and evolutionary adaptations and how sustainable theory is put into practice through a combination of traditional knowledge and national policy.  Note: this course is also an InFocus Global Seminar course: InFocus Global Seminars provide students with an opportunity to engage in hands-on learning relevant to pressing global concerns connected to the InFocus challenge areas; in this case, all 4 themes are covered at some point in the course: Poverty and Inequality; Health and Healthcare; Sustainability; and War, Peacebuilding, and the Just Society. Students travel beyond the Moravian campus to learn multiple perspectives about how people have understood and sought to address these concerns. Prerequisites: Students should have completed at least one semester at Moravian before enrolling in this class; ideally, they would have at least sophomore standing.

ENVR 370. WI: Environmental Studies Seminar. Designed to apply research methods to current environmental issues. Students will research and present written and oral reports on the general topic. Emphasis is on the development of skills in using primary literature, analysis and interpretation of data, and the communication of ideas. Writing-intensive. 

ENVR 190-199, 290-299, 390-399. Special Topics.
ENVR 286, 381-384. Independent Study.
ENVR 288, 386-388. Internship.
ENVR 400-401. Honors.